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Alternating Current (a.c): This is the mains power supply that is 110v or 220/240v and 50/60 Hz. It is called alternating current because the current oscillates from positive to negative and vice versa 60 times every single second. A.c is used by power companies as voltage is much easier to control rather than the alternatives.

Amp: An amp is a rate of flow or a volume of electricity. Amp is the unit in which electrical current flow is measured through a wire.

Amp Hour: The amp hour is the measurement of the batteries capacity, for example; the volume of energy that can be stored when fully charged. It can also be a measure of current over time.

Angle of Incidence: This measurement is the angle between direct solar rays that strike the surface and a vertical line in correspondence to the surface at the point of impact.

Array: Solar modules and the equipment required to use them connected together to provide one single electrical output

Azimuth: This is the direction in which the solar panel or array faces, described as an angle from the panel to north

Blocking diode: Used to block reverse current from flowing backward through a module, a diode protects against the risk of thermal damage to solar cells.

Circuit: A circuit is the conducting path in which electrons may flow, consisting of a source of electricity and the object needing to be powered.

Conductor: This is a material in which electrons will easily flow. Metals are conductors and allow electricity to flow quickly and easily through them.

Current: Current in measured in Amps and is the duration and rate of its flow which causes a Shock.

Direct Current (d.c): Direct current flows in one direction from a battery.

Earth Rod: The stakes in the ground that are connected to the earth terminal. The earth rod collects the pulse and distributes it

Impendence: This is the total effective resistance.

Induction: This is power transfer without actual contact. An example of this is the charging of dead or neutral fence wires that run parallel to live ones.

Insulator: This is a material that has the characteristics that resist the flow of electrons through it. It is the opposite of a conductor.

Joule: A Joule is a unit of energy and it measures the ‘kick’ of a pulse. Joules are the most important measure of the power of an energiser and works out as one joule is one watt for one second.

Kilowatt: A kilowatt equals 1000 watts and is a common measure of electrical power used universally in the electrical industry.

Leakage: Leakage is the conduction from the live wires to earth, which is caused by poor insulators, vegetation and growth resulting in a drop in voltage and effectiveness of power.

Live Wire: The live wire is known as the wire that connects the energiser to the live terminal. The live wire is insulated in order to conduct the pulse down the fence.

Load: The load is a power consuming device that is connected to an electrical circuit.

Ohm: This is a unit of resistance and is the resistance value through which one volt will maintain a current of one amp.

Pulse: This is a brief electric current or shock that is given off by an energiser and is spaced usually around one second apart from one another when frequent.

Resistance: Resistance is measured in Ohms and is defined by the materials opposition to the flow of electric current.

Short: this is the definition of low resistance leaking that’s caused by live wires touching earth return wires, steel support structure or the ground. This leads to a big drop in voltage, otherwise known as a short.

Volt: This is a unit in which electrical pressure which causes current to flow is measured. Measured at the rate of which electricity is moving, it helps display and measures how fast the electrons are moving through a circuit.

Watt: A watt is a unit of power that can be used in both electrical and mechanical application. The watt is the amount of power required for the operation of the device and is the result of voltage times by current.